Diogo Lôndero da Silva
Cláudio Melo (in memoriam)
Data de publicação
Over the past few decades there has been a remarkable increase in the global production of vehicles. This is especially notable in developing countries, like Brazil, where the annual production of cars has almost quadrupled since 1990. Many of these automobiles are equipped with mobile air-conditioning (MAC) systems in order to improve the comfort and security of the vehicle occupants. In contrast to these positive characteristics, the MAC systems are also responsible for greenhouse gas emissions and an average increase of 7.5% in the fuel consumption. In order to comply with environmental regulations and vehicular efficiency programs the automotive industry has been researching alternative fluid refrigerants and new technologies to minimize the environmental impact of MAC systems. Considering this scenario, this paper provides a review of the main features of MAC systems currently in use and identifies the main research, development and innovation (R&D&I) activities related to MAC systems which could be applied in the Brazilian market. The literature review indicates that energy efficiency improvements can be obtained by using more efficient compressors and high-performance heat exchangers, reducing the passenger cabin thermal load and introducing designs considering thermal comfort analysis and improvements based on alternative cycles and the reutilization of waste heat.
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